Nochmal Schnee in Karlsruhe

Anfang März fällt nochmal Schnee in Karlsruhe – selten genug. Ab morgen dürften sich die Minusgrade der vergangenen Woche erübrigt haben, auch wenn die Prognose für die kommenden Tage Regen und die kommende Woche »nur« Temparaturen im einstelligen Bereich vorhersagt.

Coping with a Basse de Cromorne of Louis-Nicolas Clérambault

About two weeks ago I wrote about the Duo of Clérambault, which I slowly but steadily try to master. Today I’ll discuss the Basse de Cromorne fo the Suite du deuxième ton.

I found some information in the book »Zur Interpretation der französischen Orgelmusik«. According to the table of page 27, I’ve chosen the following registration:

  • Grand Orgue: Jeu Doux (Bourdon 8′, Préstant 4′).
  • Positif: Bourdon 8′, Préstant 4′, Chromhorne.

On page 26, there are some cites on how to play such a piece. Some remarks:

  • A vivid playing is required for the bass solo, including clear articulation.
  • According to the typical rules of notes inégales, the eight notes should be played as such (»notes inégales applies to all notes moving stepwise which have a duration of one quarter the denominator of the meter, for instance, eighth notes in a meter of 2/2.«).
  • The fantastic effect of notes inégales quickly gets detroyed in case a piece is played to fast. And a vivid playing does not necessarily mean the tempo must be around 120 beats per minute. In Jon Laukvik’s book Orgelschule zur historischen Aufführungspraxis, Teil 1 – Barock und Klassik there’s another hint that the tempo in baroque times may well have been less of what we chose nowadays. I have thus chosen a tempo of about 60 BPM, which supports the next point as well.
  • Some contemporary organ players write that they tried to play the bass line like it was a Bassoon or a Viol. While playing, I try to imagine I was playing the latter one. As a consequence, I’ve added a couple of trills to my left but also the right hand playing.
  • A Non-Legato articulation lets the piece sound even more like a Viol or Bassoon.

I’m really content with the outcome of applying the abovementioned points. My interpretation sounds rather different than many other recordings I have listened to. The pieces of french organ masses are quite short. But nevertheless it is very rewarding to learn about the rules of that time so that one not only plays notes, but actually makes the music live.

Coping with a Duo of Louis-Nicolas Clérambault

About two months ago I wrote about the Plein Jeu of Clérambault, which I still didn’t master. Today I was at the Dubois organ at Wissembourg, which I’m allowed to play every now and then. One of the pièces I’m currently studying is the Duo of the very same mass (here’s a recording of a recital by Marie-Claire Alain, the Duo starting at 2′ 32″).

Many, if not any, french organ masses contain a Duo. The three characters tell the organist at couple of things:

  • The pièce consists of two voices, one in the left hand on the great organ, one in the right hand on the positif or Reçit.
  • Unlike the registrations of the other pièces of a french organ mass, there are two registrations known for Duos, one with labial stops only (with an emphasis on the thirds), another one with lingual stops (I found further information in the book Orgelschule zur historischen Aufführungspraxis, Teil 1 – Barock und Klassik of Jon Laukvik 2017, page 165).
  • Vivid playing.

All of this information is great, though I still had no clue how to interpret it. I got the essential hint by Bernhard Marx, who played at the Dubois organ in August of 2016. Unlike the other concerts, he also did the presentation. While announcing the mass of Grigny, he mentioned that the Duo is a dance. That was the crucial information I missed beforehand. Since then, I try to play the pièce as such. If it was a dance, I need to choose a matching tempo. I have to keep a steady beat so that the dancer is able to follow. Additionally, I can help the dancer by precisely articulating the notes and rhythmicity.

Orgelschule zur historischen Aufführungspraxis – Jon Laukvik

Auf knapp dreihundert gleichermaßen großformatigen wie kleingedruckten Seiten liefert Jon Laukvik in Band 1 jede Menge Informationen zu Barock und Klassik. Ich habe die Version mit beiliegendem Notenheft erworben, in dem die nicht ganz so leicht zu beschaffenden Beispiele abgedruckt sind.

Ich konnte gestern nur kurz einen Blick hineinwerfen. Als Autodidakt konnte ich bereits die ersten Erkenntnisse gewinnen, sowohl in Bezug auf Aspekte, die mich in meiner bisherigen Arbeit bestätigen, als auch Dinge, die ich bisher überhaupt nicht berücksichtigt habe.

Besonders freue ich mich über die Hinweise zu den Messen von Clérambault, an deren Interpretation ich jetzt schon eine ganze Weile feile.

Ich habe ob des Preises von 75€ lange mit dem Kauf gezögert. Um so mehr freue ich mich, das Werk endlich vorliegen zu haben.

How to fix a broken PDF for online printing

I collected all of the classical pieces I’m currently playing in one PDF, mainly to get it printed by an online service,

The PDF consists of items from various sources. Several pages of sheet music have been downloaded, others have been typeset by myself and exported to PDF. Additionally there are two pages I exported from OpenOffice (Cover and a registration page).

I used the Preview app of Mac OS X (an amazing app, BTW, including a lot of cool hidden features) to put all pages into one huge document, and I used the very same application to add tons of annotations, mainly fingering and pedaling information.

A recent attempt to get the document printed online resulted in a non prinable document. The main reason of the issues appearently are the many annotations. After removing them, a lot of warnings of the upload form disappeared. But without my fingering and pedaling annotations, the printed sheet music is almost useless. An additionaly issue was the page size of the individual pages.

The provider recommended to use a tool to unify the page sizes. So I did:

  • has the advantage that the annotations remain editable. Its disadvantage is that annotations in form of lines are misplaced after the conversion (text remained intact).
  • did the job. Almost all issued disappeared. A minor drawback is the fact that the annotations are no longer editable in Preview app. Not an issue, but to keep in mind.

One further issue was that the upload did work in Safari (6.1.6 aka 7537.78.2), but not in Firefox (48.0.2). The web service immediately complained it was not a PDF file. I presume that it’s just an issue concerning the MIME type transmitted, but I do not know exactly.

I hope the printed result will look as expected. I’ll know in about two weeks.

Motivation factors

My origins are based on education and experience I gained within the domain of industrial engineering and scientific management. After joining the IT industries, I eventually was working as a product Manager for a software product.

I never was pleased with the outcome of what we developed at that time. I wondered whether I could improve that situation by motivating my teammates. As a consequence, I read the book »Motivating Employees«. While reading it, I always asked myself wether the concepts would motivate myself. The answer always was »No. It would rather demotivate me.«. Thus my personal verdict read as:

I cannot motivate people. People only can motivate themselves. But there are a lot of things I can do to demotivate people.

But why is that? Don’t we all witness day by day that extrinsic motivation is an excellent tool to increase performance?

The answer is: »Well, it depends.«. The Royal Society of Arts (RSA) published a quite popular video based on a talk of Daniel H. Pink. Here’s the essential content:

As long as the task involved used only mechanical skills, bonuses worked as expected. Once the task called for rudimentary cognitive skills, a larger reward led to poorer performance.

3 factors lead to better performance & personal satisfaction…

  • Autonomy
  • Mastery
  • Purpose

Similar content appears in a posting published by Oscar Berg. Via Twitter he also shared the embedded venn diagram:

As I linked to this diagram a couple of years ago, I did the self test wether the things surrounded by the right circle did motivate myself. The answer was nine times »Yes, that’s me«.

KEBU on Analog Synthesizers


In this TEDx Talk, KEBU discloses some points why he prefers analog synths for his music. He mentions three major reasons which I’d like to second:

  • Sound: Compared to digital synthesis, each note (and even voice) on analog machines sounds slightly different, and the sound also changes depending on further parameters, like the temperature or age of an instrument. Some digital synths try to emulate this, e.g. by slightly detuning the oscillators over time or notes at each keypress. But I’ve barely heard convincing results so far. Thus I really like his example comparing digital and analog drum machine sounds.
  • Feel: He mentiones the unreliability and latency of software. Yes, it is phantastic what one can do nowadays with digital studio software (and I doubt there are many people who wanted to dismiss software completely). On the other hand, physical devices provide dedicated hardware controls. I meanwhile even prefer devices with keybeds of their own over rack mounted or desktop synths.
    One further issue is latency. I exclusively played digital synths during the 90ties. When I first touched an analog machine (the Roland SH-101), it felt completely different. There was an immediate response on each keypress. It’s quite interesting how a couple of milliseconds of latency impact ones playing.
  • Limitations: Removing options removes distraction, leading to focus and more creativity.

Der Fürst Pückler Park in Bad Muskau

Den Fürst-Pückler-Park in Bad Muskau hatte ich 2011 auf einer Radtour von Zittau nach Usedom bereits kennengelernt. Allerdings hatte es seinerzeit für nicht viel mehr als ein Nachmittagsschläfchen auf einer schattigen Parkbank gereicht.

Bei trüb-kühlem und windigem Dezemberwetter bietet der Park eine gänzlich andere Atmosphäre. Durch das fehlende Laub sieht man viel mehr von den Bäumen. Etliche sind am Absterben und der Windbruch leistet seinen Beitrag. Man kann stundenlang dies- und jenseits der Neiße durch die Landschaft laufen und ständig neues entdecken. Im Park ist es dieser Tage, wie auch in Bad Muskau, ziemlich ruhig. Genau das Richtige, um den Trubel der vergangenen Wochen und Monate hinter sich zu lassen.

Das OpenStreetMap-Datenmaterial bedarf nach wie vor der Hege. Zwar sind die Wege grundsätzlich vorhanden, sie sind aber noch recht grob eingezeichnet und getaggt. Auch sonstige Details fehlen noch. Sollte ich wiedermal vorbeikommen sollte ich vielleicht versuchen, mein geschätztes N900 mit Osm2Go nochmal in Betrieb zu nehmen. Um beim Wandern zu mappen waren die beiden ein ziemlich gutes Gespann, für das ich noch keinen äquivalenten Ersatz gefunden habe.

Der Rhododendronpark in Kromlau

In Kromlau liegt der durch Friedrich Hermann Rötschke begründete Rhododendronpark. Im Sommer dürfte der Besuch wohl eher lohnen als jetzt im Winter, wenn die Vegetation ruht. Auch stand das Wasser in den Seen und Tümpeln recht niedrig, weshalb an eine spektakuläre Aufnahme der Rakotzbrücke nicht ansatzweise zu denken war.

Dafür hat man dieser Tage bei Spaziergängen im ausgedehnten Park seine Ruhe, denn es hatten sich, wohl auch ob des trüben und kühlen Wetters, kaum Besucher eingefunden. Zudem wollte das OpenStreetMap-Datenmaterial weiter verfeinert werden :) .

Android Layout Hints

I’m currently experimenting with the code of Bad Metronome. Since I’m developing natively on a tablet, I need to create the UI by manually editing the XML files, without the support of a user inteface designer tool. Which turned out to be a rather time consuming task. Here are a couple of hints.

Dynamic distribution of widgets

I just wanted to stack three UI elements one above another. I’m using one of the most basic layouts, the LinearLayout in vertical direction. To distribute the widgets equally over the available height, regardless of the screen’s size (handset, tablet), I added empty views above, below, and between the widgets with only the following attributes:


TextView height

One of the three widgets is a TextView. The amount of lines changes during runtime from one up to three. This means the other user interface elements are repositioned while the user interacts with the app. Fortunately, the TextView provides attributes for the amount of minimum and maximum lines:



Icons for ToggleButton

The ToggleButton supports different icons depending on its state. Those can be changed using a selector:


The content of the selctor file may contain the following lines, where the icons name are just files within the resource folders:



Unesco-Kulturerbe »Deutscher Orgelbau«

Es freut mich natürlich sehr, dass die United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, kurz Unesco, letzte Woche auf der Insel Jejudo (Südkorea) die deutsche Orgellandschaft als schützenswertes immaterielles Kulturerbe eingestuft hat (Kurzberichte gibt es unter anderem auf Spiegel Online und als auch einen Videobeitrag auf Leider läuft der Link auf die Entscheidung derzeit ins Leere.

Mich würde allerdings interessieren, weshalb es die geographische Einschränkung gegeben hat, zumal Deutschland an der Entscheidung gar nicht beteiligt war. Orgelbau und -musik haben schließlich in ganz Europa eine lange Tradition.

Requirements for a Metronome App

Every now and then I use a metronome while practising. I still have a traditional, spring loaded metronome available. Somewhere I must also have a digital device from the 90ties.

It was always tempting to place the metronome on top of the instrument while practising. But what I learned was that a moving pendulum or blinking LEDs distracts the player from the acoustic signal, the sheet music and the instrument. So one habit of mine was to place the metronome outside the reach of my eyes.

Since we have modern handsets at our disposal at almost any time, an app was a perfect solution. Here are a couple of requirements I have in mind:

  • Absolutely precise timing. There are many apps available, but several have difficulties coping with this non functional requirement.
  • Distraction free user interface. This removes all apps from the remaining list that are based on ads or contain animations like moving pendulums or blinking user interface elements.
  • Straightforward usage. One of the apps I used had a lot of features so that the start/stop button was difficult to locate. And when trying to start the metronome, it complained that I had to configure a couple of settings first.
  • Great user experience. The basic features should be as simple to use as possible. The Start/Stop button should be big enough to use it even at a distance of an arm.
  • Pleasant timbre. I know, de gustibus non est disputandum. But plain sine or square waves IMO sound cheap.

I really liked the Soundbrenner user interface approach, but unfortunately it failed as per the topmost and the second requirement.

After a rather long survey, I found the code of Bad Metronome, which actually provides the precision required. Ironically it provides a control to add some randomisation to its precision :) . I’m currently experimenting with the code so as to learn more about Android programming.

An obvious issue of BadMetronome is that it runs at twice the speed configured. The issue is that the code assumes that 1 sample is expressed in one byte, but actually it’s two of them. In I thus added
beatLength = beatLength * 2;
below the line
int beatLength = (int) Math.round((60.0/bpm)*audioTrack.getSampleRate());

Sebastian Küchler-Blessing an der Woehl-Orgel der Friedenskirche in Köln-Mülheim

Aufgrund des am heutigen ersten Advent einsetzenden Schneetreibens bin ich leider etwas später als geplant in Köln eingetroffen; ich wollte eigentlich noch schnell an unseren neuen Büros vorbeischauen.

Für das Konzert an der neuen Woehl-Orgel in der Friedenskirche hat es aber glücklicherweise gerade noch gereicht.
Sebastian Küchler-Blessing hat uns eine gute Stunde lang verwöhnt. Mit Johann Ulrich Steigleder bin ich bisher noch überhaupt nicht in Kontakt gekommen.

Die Improvisation war beeindruckend genug. Besonders überrascht war ich von der sauberen Rhythmik. Hier das Programm:

  • Johann-Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) – Fantasia g-Moll (BWV 542-1)
  • Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593-1635) – Tabulatur Buch darinnen daß Vatter unser (1627) – 4. Coral im Discant. 4 Vocum.
  • Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593-1635) – Tabulatur Buch darinnen daß Vatter unser (1627) – 14. Coral im Baß. 3 Vocum.
  • Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593-1635) – Tabulatur Buch darinnen daß Vatter unser (1627) – 17. Coral im Discant. 3 Vocum.
  • Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593-1635) – Tabulatur Buch darinnen daß Vatter unser (1627) – 32. Coral im Discant. 3 Vocum.
  • Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593-1635) – Tabulatur Buch darinnen daß Vatter unser (1627) – 37. Coral im Discant. 4 Vocum.
  • Johann-Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) – Leipziger Choräle – Nun komm der Heiden Heiland à 2 Clav. e Ped. (BWV 659)
  • Johann-Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) – Leipziger Choräle – Trio super – Nun komm der Heiden Heiland à due Bassi e Canto fermo (BWV 660)
  • Johann-Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) – Leipziger Choräle – Nun komm der Heiden Heiland in Organo pleno. Cato fermo in Pedale (BWV 661)
  • Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847) – Sonate VI d-Moll op. 65, Nr. 6 – Vater unser im Himmelreich – 1. Chorale – Andante sostenuto. Allegro molto
  • Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847) – Sonate VI d-Moll op. 65, Nr. 6 – Vater unser im Himmelreich – 2. Fuga – Sostenuto e legato
  • Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847) – Sonate VI d-Moll op. 65, Nr. 6 – Vater unser im Himmelreich – 3. Finale – Andante
  • Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593-1635) – Tabulatur Buch darinnen daß Vatter unser (1627) – 40. Auff Toccata Manier
  • Sebastian Küchler-Blessing (1987) – Improvisation über zwei gegebene Themen

Am Intrument hat mich der für das kleine Gotteshaus recht üppige Umfang der Dispositin überrascht (im Pedal ist gar ein 32′-Burdon gelistet). Die Intonation ist glücklicherweise so ausgelegt, dass der Klang des Instrumentes den Raum füllt, aber von dezenter Lautstärke ist. Zusammen mit dem dezenten Nachhall passt das sehr gut.
Einzelne Register spucken ziemlich stark, für meinen Geschmack sind die Anblasgeräusche teils zu kräftig herausgearbeitet. Das ist aber immer davon abhänig was und wie man spielt.

Ein schönes Konzert an einem tollen Instrument. Würde ich nochmal nehmen :) .

Einmal Grießklößchen, bitte

Wenn ich krankheitsbedingt zu Hause bleiben muss, koche ich nach Möglichkeit eine Rindsbrühe. Speziell bei einer Erkältung ist das eine echte Wohltat. Dazu gehört dann auch eine Einlage, bevorzugt in Form von Grießklößchen.

Im Gegensatz zu den üblichen Rezepten verwende ich keine Milch. Ich zerlasse bei geringer Wärmezufuhr ca. 30g Butter mit etwas Salz und rühre ein Ei abseits der Kochstelle (so dass es nicht stockt) hinein. Anschließend kommen ca. 70g Dinkelgrieß hinzu, bis sich die Masse vom Boden löst. Anschließend zuerst abkühlen lassen, bevor es ans Formen der Klößchen gehen kann.

Nach diesem Rezept werden die Klößchen etwas trockener, dafür aber auch fester und formstabiler.

Coping with a Plein Jeu of Louis-Nicolas Clérambault

In 1710 Louis-Nicolas Clérambault published a Livre d’orgue containing two suites (Suite du premier ton et Suite du deuxième ton) in the style of the french organ school. I’m working on a couple of pieces of the latter one. The first piece is a Plein Jeu which I’m playing for almost two years now, and I’m still not content with the outcome. This posting tells why.

At first sight, the piece is not that difficult to play. Just two pages of sheet music, partly even without pedaling, and only a couple of sixteenth notes. Actually I did not notice any issues until I mastered playing the piece mechanically and started interpreting it. What I was playing at that time just was sounding dull. It was obvious that the composer had things in mind I didn’t understand yet.


The piece is structured in four parts. It starts with the «Petit plein jeu au positif» (without pedaling), in bar ten it swaps to the «Grand plein jeu» (with the pedalboard joining in bar 13), back to positif in bar 22 and back in bar 32. A couple of things happen at the interfaces:

  • The keybed changes.
  • The time signature changes between “2” and the infamous alla breve.
  • The parts on the Positif are marked as «Gay»ment, the parts of the great as «Lentement» (or even «fort lentement» for the last couple of bars).

I was confused by the latter two points. Fortunately I found some additional information concerning french Plein Jeux in the book »Zur Interpretation der französischen Orgelmusik«. Beginning with page 14, Hans Musch cites several contemporary composers:

  • Nicolas Lebègue: «Le Prélude et Plein Jeu so doit toucher gravement, et le Plein Jeu du Positif légerement.»
  • André Raison: «Le grand plein jeu so touche fort lentement. […] Le petit plein jeu je se touche légèrement et le bien couleur.»
  • Jacques Boyvin and Gaspard Corrette both state the agility applied to the positif, e.g. by using trills.

After a lot of experimenting I’m currently using the following approach. I interpret the «2» of the positif as a time signature of 2/2. I use a speed of 56 beats per minute, which is equivalent to a speed of about 112 bpm in case the time signature was 4/4. And I interpret the alla breve of the grand plein jeu as a 4/4 using the very same pulse of 56 bpm. This actually means a bar of the grand plein jeu has twice the duration of a bar on the positif. This allows me to keep a steady pulse throughout the complete pièce while still playing the positif twice as fast as the grand plein jeu. This is exactly the opposite of what an organ player might do when only reading the sheet music.

Steady Pulse

A steady pulse, which guides the listener through a piece, is a very important aspect of a good interpretation. I try to keep the aforementioned tempo of 56 bpm throughout the piece, except for the last couple of bars. This is hindered by a couple of issues. One of the impediments are the trills (e.g. bars 1,2, and 22 ), another the rests before the sixteenths (e.g. bars 1, 2, 10, 16, 17, 18, 19). A further issue is the relative length of the sixteenth notes. Especially on the grand plein jeu, I tend to play the sixteenths way too fast. But the very same is valid for the quarter notes. Frankly, it actually is difficult to play the quarter notes as slow as necessary. I always feel like «Those can’t be that long».

I’m currently experimenting with a metronome to educate myself. Interestingly, I’m now playing the second petit plein jeux part (bar 22) much slower than before. And it is difficult. I do not intend to play the piece exacly like this, since Agogic is an important part of an interpretation. But for the moment it helps me to figure out a correct straightforward approach. It’s just the baseline before applying some deviations.

Notes inégales

In short, the piece sounds boring without them. Since the meter is even, notes inégales can be applied to the notes of one quater of the “denominator”. On the petit plein jeux, those are the eighth notes. But what about the grand plein jeu in alla breve?!? I only see one solution, which is applying notes inégales to the eigth notes on the main as well (e.g. bars 14 and 15).

The infamous last line

I had difficulties to bring the last line to life. Until I started to apply notes inégales to it as well, though the typical rules of notes inégales are not obviously visible. But they helped a lot. Beginning from the 2nd half of bar 42 until the end of the pièce, I have to count the triplets loudly to cope with this issue. But it’s well worth the effort. Since I treat the eigths notes as the thirds of a triplet, I get much better results. I keep it this way even during the ritardando of the last three bars. And I still apply them to the trill on the very last half note.

Plein Jeu, Grand Jeu – Grand Plein Jeu!

The french organ school of that time knows the Plein Jeu as the choir of principals (including mixtures), and the Grand Jeu as a combination of labial and lingual stops. As far as I know at the moment, they neither didn’t know of a Tutti nor a combination of the Plein Jeu with the Grand Jeu. The only exception I know of is the Plein Chant, a Plein Jeu with a 8′ Trompette added to the pedal.

The mistake I made was to interpret the term “Grand Plein Jeu” as the combination of a Plein and a Grand Jeu. Meanwhile I dismissed this practice. It just means the Plein Jeu of the great organ in contrast to the Plein Jeu of the positif. Note that a Plein Jeu also requires the positif to be coupled to the great organ.


A lot of difficulties, well worth the effort. French organ masses consist of relatively short pièces. And every pièce is different of all others. Yes, it’s a lot of work to fiddle with the characteristics of all those short piéces. And this is what makes baroque french organ music different. There’s a lot of stuff densely packed into relatively short pièces. I’m deeply impressed what the musicians of that period have to offer. The longer I spend time coping with their music, the more I believe they anticipated jazz music – centuries before it was invented.

Kurztrip nach Luxembourg

Echternach in Luxembourg steht schon länger auf meiner ToDo-Liste. Die Gegend versprach neben dem kulturellen Angebot auch schöne Wandertouren. Nachdem uns der Gesetzgeber dieses Jahr mit dem Reformationstag ein schönes langes Wochenende beschert hat, gab es keine Ausflüchte mehr.

Eine schöne Strecke durch die “luxemburger Schweiz” führt durch die Wolfschlucht. Einen Track findet man unter anderem hier. Mit einer wind- und regendichten Jacke ist die Tour auch im späten Oktober noch gut zu gehen. Parken kann man gut hier. An der Texaco-Tankstelle, an der man sich gegebenenfalls noch mit Proviant eindecken kann, geht man ein paar Meter die Straße “Op Troo” bis zum Ende der Kurve hinauf und dann geradeaus weiter durch den Hohlweg bis zur “Montée de Trooskneppchen”. Im Sommer dürfte die Strecke ziemlich überlaufen sein. Jetzt im Spätherbst begegnet man unterwegs nur einer Handvoll Wanderern.

Echternach ist ein geschichtsträchtiger Ort – vieles dreht sich um den heiligen Willibrord. Die Stadt hat aber noch mehr zu bieten, wie beispielsweise die Reste einer römischen Landsiedlung etwas außerhalb des Stadtzentrums.

Auch mittelalterliche Burgen lassen sich einige finden, so beispielsweise le chateau de Larochette. Die Anlage wurde auf eine Art und Weise wiederhergestellt, dass sie wie keine andere ein gutes Gefühl dafür aufkommen lässt, wie das Leben im Mittelalter ausgesehen haben könnte. Trotz der neuzeitlichen Imitationen hatte ich den Eindruck, dass hier besonders wohlhabende Besitzer lebten. Üblicherweise habe ich eher das Bild im Kopf, dass auch die Burgherren im Mittelalter ein recht bescheidenes Leben führten. In Larochette war das Leben möglicherweise vergleichsweise luxuriös.

Auch in Bourscheid ist eine bedeutende Burganlage erhalten. Wer eine Übernachtungsgelegenheit sucht, wird möglicherweise im St. Fiacre fündig. Im zugehörigen Restaurant bekommt man wirklich ein gutes Essen und hervorragenden Service.