Category Archives: Musical Instruments

Posts about musical instruments, may be hard- or even software

Korg MS-20 Envelope Generator 2 Behaviour

Ages ago I tried to cope with the EG2 of the Kronos’ software implementation of the MS-20. Meanwhile there are hardware reissues of at least two manufacturers, KORG and Behringer. The behaviour of EG2 is consistent to the original machine, which makes some users scratch their heads.

Many synthesizers provide two ADSR envelopes, one for the VCA (volume contour), and one for the VCF (which most often is a low pass filter).

For the VCA envelope, you’ll not find a parameter “Envelope amount”. The envelope usually starts with the VCA fully closed (except there’s a parameter “Initial gain” and set to something different than 0). After a key press, the envelope will fully open the amplifier at the end of the attack time, then fall down to sustain level and slowly close the amp after the key was released.

The MS-20 features an additional parameter “Hold time”. It essentially prolongs the sustain level after the key was released, similarly to pressing down a hold pedal for a couple of seconds. I’ll leave this parameter alone for now, so what remains is an ordinary ADSR envelope.

EG2 is always coupled to the VCA and behaves exactly as described above. It is not possible to decouple this connection and use EG2 for the filters exclusively, e.g. by patching EG1 to the “Initial Gain” jack. This behaviour may cause the first confusion for many users.

Now for the filters. Either of them provides a knob “EG2/Ext” which allows to control the amount of envelope to be applied to them.

ADSR envelopes applied to a filter by an amount knob usually behave very similar to the envelope applied to the VCA, except for two little differences. The envelope does not open and close the filter completely. Instead, it affects the filter cutoff only by the amount as set by some controls like the ones depicted above. Usually it does so starting at the currently set cutoff frequency as the baseline. Any sustain level greater than 0 thus shifts the cutoff frequency by a certain amount as long as a key is pressed.

The MS-20 behaves differently. From the original manual:

The EG-2 output is internally patched to the VCA so that changes in volume over time will occur to sounds according to the EG-2 control settings. In addition, another EG-2 output is sent to the Filter Modulation controls (EG-2/EXT) so as to modulate the VCF's cut-off frequency. In this mode the filter's "steady state" is the Sustain Level. The filter's cut-off frequency will start below this level initially, will rise above the Sustain level during Attack cycle, will fall to the Sustain level, and then will fall below to the initial level again following trigger release.

This special behaviour still was easy to adopt. What makes it difficult to cope with is the fact, that EG2 still is coupled to the VCA. So here’s a little résumé for all of us who approach the MS-20 with the mental model of our usual comfort zone:

  • The parameter “Hold Time” prolongs the sustain after the key was released, similar as pressing a hold pedal for a couple of seconds. It does not act as a delay before the attack phase. I recommend to just leave it alone (at least as long you are still not familiar with the machine).
  • EG2 always controls the amplifier. There is no means to get rid of this connection.
    • In case that Attack, Decay and Sustain are all set to their minimum, not much will be audible, since the amplifier opens and closes immediately. This is the behaviour to expect from an amp envelope.
  • A second output of EG2 is routed to the filter’s cutoffs by default, unless a patch cable is plugged in via the patch panel. This second output behaves differently than the amp output, since the sustain level will never be added to the set cutoff frequency.
    • Raising the sustain level will not raise the filter’s cutoff as one might expect. Instead, it moves the envelope below the cutoff frequency by the amount of the sustain level. This is only audible during the attack and release phases. In case both are set to their leftmost position, it is not audible.
    • Raising the sustain level reduces the headroom for the decay, just as it does on a common ADSR envelope.
    • Reducing the sustain level does not lower the cutoff. However, since it closes the amplifier, the sound will loose volume.

To circumvent the issues, EG1 could be used for the cutoff instead. As soon it gets patched via the patch panel, EG2 gets decoupled from the filter. However, EG1 is quite limited, since it is missing decay and sustain.

A further solution is to use an envelope generator of another synth. Maybe some eurorack modules, or another synth wich has CV outputs from its envelopes. So does the Pro-1. I connect both to the MIDI keyboard, turn down the volume of the Pro-1 and use its filter envelope to control the cutoff of the low pass filter, and its amp envelope to control the high pass filter. This gives me much better control over the filter of the K-2 than the device itself provides. Problem solved :) .

CAIN++ User Oscillator for Korg *logue synthesizers

CAIN++ is a user oscillator to emulate plucked string instruments using the Karplus/Strong approach. Since the parameters are not absolutely intuitive, here are some hints by the author for a couple of patches:

Shape: Max
Shift Shape: Max
Pluck: 1
S Volume: 1
S Color: 1
Frequenzy: 20
Waveform: 1

Shape: Max
Shift Shape: Max
Pluck: 43
S Volume: 1
S Color: 1
Frequenzy: 20
Waveform: 1

Soft C++ Bass
Shape: Max
Shift Shape: Max
Pluck: 98
S Volume: 32
S Color: 100
Frequenzy: 41
Waveform: 1

Comparing the Korg prologue and minilogue xd

A couple of days ago, I had the occasion to directly compare both synths. Since there are more soundsets available for the xd than the prologue, I used Sunny Synths prologue panel, which can import minilogue xd paches. Those files can be extracted from the librarian provided by Korg, or extracted from an xd soundbank using loguetools.

The minilogue xd often gets perceived as a synth with a very interesting sound (which I’d like to confirm). Thanks to the direct comparison of both machines, I can confirm that it’s not the filter that makes both synths sound different. Actually, both are very close, and the filters seem to be identical. Many patches I listened to sound identical on both machines. Though not all.

The secret of the xd are minor, but essential changes in its modulation capabilities. The LFO got a 1shot mode, essentially providing a third envelope generator. Additionally, sync and ring modulation are not XOR as on the prologue, but can be used simultaneously. So consider routing a 1shot sawtooth LFO to the pitch of oscillator 2, syncing it to oscillator 1 while enabling ring and cross modulation. This subtle design change provides a lot of interesting transients. However, this only affects a couple of presets which actually make good use of those features. Most presets sound almost identical on either machine, including lead and bass sounds.

What I noticed was that the oscillators sound slightly different. The prologue’s seems to provide less partials while being more uneasy. The latter issue may be beneficial for pad and string sounds.

So which one is the better machine? Well, they’re almost identical. As a keyboardist, I prefer the prologue due to its better keybed. I still wish, though, it borrowed the modulation design and the joystick of the xd.

The Sequential Prophet Rev2 synthesizer

The history of Sequential’s (or temporarily Dave Smith Instruments’) legendary Prophet synthesizers started over 4 decades ago. For details, head over to Youtube.

The REV2 features a fully analogue signal path, though its oscillators are not voltage, but digitally controlled (DCOs instead of VCOs). Compared to its predecessor 08, it is being said that the keybed was improved (Fatar TP/9S). The power supply is now internal instead of a wall wart. USB-MIDI was added as well as eight banks of preset memory (instead of two). The REV2 can load presets from the 08, though they might not sound absolutely identical due to subtle changes in its design. All waveforms now obey to wave shaping, and a sub oscillator was added as well as a digital effects unit. The modulation matrix now provides eight (instead of four) entries. The REV2 actually appears as a polished 08 and is, despite its complexity, very accessible due to its great user interface.

The machine is available in eight and sixteen voice flavours. Eight voice users can purchase an extension board, which is not available at a bargain, though. 16 voices are recommendable, since sounds with notable release times are one of the strenghts of the REV2. During startup, the Rev2 displays the amount of voices available. Since the board can be easily removed, this message is of special interest for s/h buyers.

The timbre is coined by Dough Curtis‘ filter design and reminiscent of the typical ’80th sound of other synths (like Waldorf‘s Microwave I) and several music productions of that time. The factory presets provide a good overview of its capabilities. It is being said, though, that they don’t really unveil the instrument’s potential. Several third party soundsets are available, e.g. the Pad Collection or the 80’s soundset by Roberto Galli, Synthwave or Vintage Classic by Luke Neptune, the Voice Component Modeled Patch Bank by Jason Cooper, or Prophet Classics respectively Exploring Prophet by AnalogAudio1, just to name a few.

Unlike the Deepmind, the REV2 does not depend on its digital FX engine. For home or stage use, it’s a welcome addition anyway. Studio users may use an already present external processor.

The 1024 presets on the unit cannot be categorized or searched by certain criteria, and unlike the Korg logue synthesizers, no official sound librarian is provided. Recently, Knobkraft Orm, an open source tool, appeared, which lets the user load presets in SysEx format and easily browse and audition its content.

One of the strenghts of the machine is its massive modulation capability. It provides four LFOs with five waveforms each, which can be routed directly to several destinations. The top right hand section provides a third envelope generator, so modulating some oscillators pitch does not limit the automation of the filter’s cutoff contour. The top left hand section provides a modulation matrix with eight general purpose entries and five additional entries. The latter ones grant direct access to controllers like the modulation wheel, aftertouch, breath controller, foot controller or velocity. Evolving pads and living strings are one of its natural domains.

The oscillator section provides sync, but no ring– or cross-modulation. However, the top right hand corner of the filter section provides an interesting audio mod pot, a feature seldom to find.

There’s a lot more to be said, since the Prophet Rev2 is quite deep. Just search the web for more details about this outstanding synth.

The Korg minilogue xd synthesizer

The current lineup of Korg’s logue synthesizers consists of the minilogue (2016), the monologue (2017), the prologue (2018) and the minilogue xd (2019). Slowly and steadily they conquer the terrain of analogue synthesis.

The minilogue xd shares the form factor with its predecessor minilogue, though featurewise it is more a shrinked prologue than an enhanced minilogue. Compared to the latter, additions include a stereo output, an improved effects section, the inclusion of a third digital oscillator (equal to the prologue), a changed filter design (much closer to the prologue than to the original minilogue), and a joystick controller.

As with the prologue, the digital Multi Engine provides a noise generator and a VPM/FM oscillator. Additionally there are 16 slots for third party oscillators, with the Waves oscillator preinstalled. Further oscillators are provided e.g. by hammondeggs or Sound Mangling (Tim Shoebridge) or can be created by the user using the publicly available logue SDK.

The device gets shipped with 200 of the 500 memory slots populated with presets. Korg didn’t port the additonal soundsets of the original minilogue to the xd. An open source converter exists with loguetools, but since the machines differ, the results are not perfect and require manual adjustments.

For keyboardist, there are drawbacks. In case the mini keys are to small, get the module version and connect it to a full size keyboard. A painful omission is the lack of sustain and release for the envelope generator. The latter actually exists, though it is not exposed to the user interface. Instead, the decay time is used as release time. The former, however, is definitely missing. This is painful, since it is essential for dynamic sounds like Brass emulations. A mitigation was to control the cutoff frequency by velocity. Unfortunately this cannot be done with the minilogue. The xd’s keybed does not support aftertouch. Interestingly a recent update allows it to control several parameters, including the filter’s cutoff. But velocity control is still missing. Keyboardists may be served better with the prologue.

Users who want to use it in conjunction with a digital audio workstation (here’s a matching video of Korg) may either prefer the original minilogue (since threre are much more downloadable presets available). The xd may be a better choice in case one wants to use it for bass sounds (due to the changed filter) or the Multi Engine is of interest.

The Korg minilogue synthesizer

Korg Minilogue (by Aeternus, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0)

In 2016, Korg released the Korg minilogue. Despite its size (and mini keybed), it is an synthesizer with excellent audio qualities. It still is sold for about 70 € less than its successor, the minilogue xd, which appeared in 2019 (after the release of the flagship prologue in 2018). Surprisingly, it provides features the xd lacks, e.g. the amplitude of the LFO can be controlled by the envelope generator, and noteworthy, the EG is of usual ADSR type, while the xd only provides attack and decay, no sustain or release.

The minilogue’s filter sounds completely different compared to the xd. Especially the resonance lets one create nice sweeps the xd cannot do this way, while it notably thins out the lower frequencies, which the xd doesn’t.

The device gets shipped with 100 presets populating its 200 memory slots. Korg provides seven further soundpacks as free downloads. Further artists have created soundpacks, and posted demonstrations of the presets on Youtube. One of them is Adam Borseti, who showcases some of his presets in this video. They are currently available via

The minilogue, the minilogue xd and the prologue are quite similar and provide excellent analogue sound. In case the third user programmable oscillator of the xd was of little interest, I’d still go for the original minilogue.

The Hurdy-gurdy explained

About 20 Years ago, I started to built a hurdy-gurdy, but never finished it. This evening, I found some videos of Patty Gurdy explaning her instrument and the Buzzing Bridge.

BTW: I found her solo of “Leaves And Lemons” quite impressive, though some postprocessiong might be involved. And it reminds me of a concert by Rüdiger Oppermann about 7 years ago :) .

Edit 2020-12-07: Michalina Malisz proves it’s possible to play it even hurdy’er :) .

Sequential Prophet Rev2 – undocumented special menu

The Prophet Rev2 features an undocumented special menu. Besides other things, it allows to copy user banks to preset banks (and the other way around). A very handy feature in case one wants to host other than the factory patches in the “ROM” preset banks.

To call the “debug” menu, just press the buttons down, up and global simultaneously.

Sequential Prophet Rev2 startup sound

The Prophet always is loading a certain patch when booting. Unlike other instruments, it does neither remember the last used preset nor start with the sound of the very first memory slot. Instead, the user can actually set up the sound to load the following way:

  • Select the preset the Prophet shall load at startup.
  • Enter global menu.
  • Leave global menu.

That’s it.

John Bowen Solaris – Preset Bank 8

About 5 years ago I explored the synthesis capabilities of the Solaris by creating several sounds for it. Every now and then, I posted the presets at the user forum. Eventually John included them in the OS as factory preset bank 8. Frankly, I still feel honoured :) .

In case you own one of the later Solaris’, you should have the sounds on board already (Bank 8 program 0 should read as »Softy«). If you don’t, here’s the files I sent to John on Feb 15, 2015.

Solaris Bank 8 – Christoph Eckert – 2015-02-15

Updating the firmware of a Korg Minilogue XD

Korg provides a firmware updater tool which does all the magic for you. It requires to turn the Minilogue XD into »Update mode«. Unfortunately, unlike advertised, neither the english nor the german manual provide any hint how to accomplish that.

On youtube I found a video explaining how to do it for the Minilogue – hold the buttons 6 and 8 pressed while powering on the device. Consequently, it’s just buttons 14 and 16 on the Minilogue XD.

Edit 2020-01-02:

After the last update, the Minilogue XD complained during startup

Update Required
Panel 1.01
Update Required
Voice 1.01

According to a Gearsluts posting, the Panel update can be performed by holding the buttons 14, Rec, and Rest while powering the on device.

I found no information for the Voice update but for the Prologue, which is buttons 5, Exit, and Shift. Translated to the Minilogue XD this turned out to be buttons 13, Rec, and Rest.

Swapping keybeds during a performance


Ausra Motuzaite-Pinkeviciene asks:

Do you find hard to jump from manual to manual in fast passages to create an echo effect?

This reminds me of the «Caprice sur les Grands Jeux» of Louis-Nicolas Clérambault (1676 – 1749) I played a couple of months ago. Here’s a recording of Luca Raggi. He really plays it perfectly. But I’m missing alterations in the piece. That’s why I decided to play it on two manuals (Grand orgue et Positif). The difficulty was that almost the whole piece consists of many eigths notes – not much time to swap the manuals. But for the piece’s sake I did it, regardless of the difficult playing.


That IMO was a rewarding decision. I swapped manuals like mad. Starting on the Positif, the left hand went to the Main and back to the Positif several times. In bar 16 both hands touched the Main keybed, and just two bars later both hands switched back to the positif.

Yes, it was difficult to cope with. And yes, it was much more fun than playing the whole piece on one keybed alone.

L’Orgue Français – Marie-Claire Alain

Orgue Francais - Marie-Claire Alain

Trotzdem ich mich bereits seit einiger Zeit mit klassischer französischer Orgelliteratur beschäftige, habe ich erst kürzlich Marie-Claire Alain entdeckt. Ihr Lebenswerk, wie beispielsweise die aus 22 CDs bestehende Sammlung «L’Orgue Français», ist beachtlich. Vierhundertdreiundachtzig Stücke lang kann man die Leichtigkeit der Franzosen auf passenden Instrumenten eingespielt genießen.

Das Erarbeiten klassischer Musikliteratur

Organ of Santa Maria di Carignano Genoa

Vor nicht ganz eineinhalb Jahren habe ich begonnen, klassische französische Orgelmusik zu spielen. Im Moment erarbeite ich zwei Stücke von Abraham van den Kerckhoven.

Eine Lerntechnik sieht in etwa folgendermaßen aus:

  • Fingersatz erarbeiten und in die Noten schreiben.
  • Rechte Hand, linke Hand und Pedal separat üben, bis alles flüssig läuft.
  • Kombinatorisch immer zwei davon zusammen üben, bis alles läuft.
  • Alle zusammen üben, bis alles läuft.
  • Bei alledem immer den selben Fingersatz verwenden, damit er sich einprägt.

Ich habe das so nie ausprobiert. Aus meiner Erfahrung heraus vermute ich, dass diese Technik zu einer ziemlich guten Wiedergabe dessen führen kann, was auf dem Notenblatt steht.

Aber was ist mit den vielen Dingen, die nicht auf dem Papier stehen, also der Interpretation?

Ich gehe anders vor:

  • Die Muster im Stück suchen, Fingersatz erarbeiten und in die Noten schreiben.
  • Mit beiden Händen und Pedal unter Verwendung des erarbeiteten Fingersatzes immer wieder durch das Stück “quälen”, bis ich die Noten allesamt kenne. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt habe ich den Fingersatz bereits mehrfach überarbeitet.
  • Jetzt kann auch langsam das Metronom zum Einsatz kommen. Damit merke ich abrupt, was ich rhythmisch noch alles falsch mache. Ich versuche mich aber auch nicht abhängig vom Taktgeber zu machen, denn spätestens im nächsten Schritt kommen Ritardandi und Accelerandi hinzu.
  • Jetzt kann ich endlich anfangen, aus den Noten das Stück zu formen. Wo bilde ich Phrasen? Wo setze ich Zäsuren? Wo spiele ich legato? Wo verkürze ich Noten zur Akzentuierung? Wo bringe ich Ornamente (wie Vorschlagnoten, Nachschläge, Triller und so weiter) an? Wo kann ich Notes Inégales einsetzen? Wo will ich beschleunigen, wo verzögern? Das hat sehr viel mit aufkommenden Ideen, Ausprobieren und Verwerfen zu tun. Damit einhergehend muss ich auch den Fingersatz immer wieder anpassen.
  • Immer wieder spielen, spielen, spielen. Irgendwann bin ich auch so weit, dass ich mir selbst dabei zuhören kann. Passt das so? Klingt das gut? Kann der Komponist sich das so vorgestellt haben? Falls nein, was will ich nochmal ändern?

Dieser Prozess dauert bei mit sehr sehr lange. Sobald ich weiß, wie ich das Stück spielen möchte, tendiere ich allerdings auch dazu, es beiseite zu legen und das nächste in Angriff zu nehmen. Oft beginne ich sogar schon mit dem nächsten Stück, während ich am letzten noch am Feilen bin. Was dazu führt, dass ich im Moment keines der Stücke aus meinem Repertoire “auf Zuruf” zuverlässig sauber wiedergeben kann und ich in der Woche vor einem Konzert intensiv nochmal die Stücke üben muss, die ich spielen will.

Das hätte ich gern anders.

Solange ich die Noten auf dem Pult habe merke ich, dass ich immer nur auf die jeweils zu spielende Stelle fixiert bin. Ich habe nicht präsent, was die nächsten paar Takte passieren wird. Weshalb ich immer wieder mal hängen bleibe. Also versuche ich immer einen Takt voraus zu lesen. Das ist allerdings äußerst mühsam, weshalb ich das immer nur für eine gewisse Zeit schaffe.

Im angelsächsischen Raum ist es stärker Usus, ein Konzert ohne Noten zu spielen, also die Stücke auswändig parat zu haben. Das würde ich gerne mal ausprobieren, ist im Moment aber noch mühsamer als das Vorauslesen beim Spielen. Ich habe die Idee daher erstmal beiseite gelegt. Aber nicht vergessen. Wenn ich “meine” Stücke mal etwas besser beherrsche, möchte ich das mal wenigstens an einem probieren. Zumal es das lästige Umblättern an oftmals ungünstigen Stellen im Notenbild komplett eliminieren würde.

Nicolaus Bruhns – Præludium e-Moll

Bruhns Praeludium e-Moll

Vor langer Zeit hatte ich eine Aufnahme des folgenden Stückes. Fragmente davon gingen mir immer wieder mal durch den Kopf, aber ich hatte sowohl den Komponisten als auch den Titel des Stückes nicht mehr parat. Per Zufall bin ich während einer Recherche wieder darübergestolpert. Es handelt sich um das Præludium in e-Moll des norddeutschen Komponisten Nicolaus Bruhns, und zwar die “kleine“, denn es gibt ein weiteres Stück mit derselben Bezeichnung.

Auffällig an dem Stück ist der “zerstückelte Aufbau”. Fast könnte man sagen, es handelt sich um eine willkürliche Aneinanderreihung verschiedener Segmente. Eine “innere Kohärenz” ist jedenfalls nicht auszumachen. Den Beginn bildet ungewöhnlicherweise auch gleich ein Pedalsolo in Sechzehntelnoten.

Auf einem norddeutschen Instrument in ungleichschwebender Temperierung lässt sich das Stück recht authentisch wiedergeben. Thorsten Ahlrichs hat das Glück, ein solches Werk von Arp Schnitger zur Verfügung zu haben. Eine ziemlich gute Einspielung. Es wird eine Weile dauern, bis ich das auch so gut hinbekomme… :)

Das Regal


Neben dem Portativ findet sich unter den älteren Tasteninstrumenten auch das Regal. Den Klang hat man vielleicht schon eher mal gehört. Hier die Passacaglia in d von Johann Caspar Kerll, gespielt von Carsten Lorenz, Rottweil, oder »Fabordon del Quinto tono« von Antonio Cabezon, gespielt von Lynn Tabbert auf einem Instrument von Marcus Stahl (beide Dresden), oder ein Stück von Facoli gespielt auf einem Tischregal nach Dom Bedos.

Hier ein Zitat von Johann Mattheson:

…und ist recht Wunder, dass man hiesiges Ortes die schnarrenden, höchst ekelhaften Kegalen in den Kirchen noch beibehält…

In barocken Orgeln findet man gelegentlich entsprechende Regalregister. Hier ist ein Autor der Meinung:

Das in der Renaissance aufgekommene Brustwerk ist ideengeschichtlich ein an die Orgel angebautes Regalwerk, daher findet sich das Regal bis zum Barock vornehmlich im Brustwerk

Mit Regalen lässt sich allerdings nicht nur traditionelle Musik spielen, wie diese Aufnahme von Scotty Böttchers aus diesem Jahr eindrucksvoll belegt.

Das Portativ


Sofern überhaupt dürften die meisten diesen Instrumententyp nur von mittelalterlichen Abbildungen her kennen. Noch seltener wird man es auch hören können, wie beispielsweise das Stück O Gloriosa Domina aus dem Buxheimer Orgelbuch, gespielt von Ernst Stolz.

An größeren Orgeln kann man, im Gegensatz zum Pianoforte, einzelne Töne bauartbedingt nicht in der Dynamik beeinflussen. Umso beeindruckender ist es, wie dynamisch das Portativ klingen kann, indem der Spieler durch das manuelle Betätigen des Balges den Luftdruck variiert. Christophe Deslignes bringt hier den Dynamikumfang auf einem Instrument von Marcus Stahl sehr beeindruckend zur Geltung. [1]

Die Instrumente werden auch andernorts noch gebaut, wie beispielsweise von Stefan & Annette Keppler ( Der Deutschlandfunk stellte hierzu am 24.01.2014 einen Artikel ins Netz. Ganz besonders interessant finde ich als Fusion-Fan natürlich die “BlackEdition“,

Vorbereitet für spezielle Mikrofonierung mit Vorverstärker, Effektgerät und Funkstrecke. LED-Beleuchtung nach Wahl.

die mich sofort an die Stromharfe von Rüdiger Oppermann denken lässt :) .

[1] Das Stück erinnert mich an »Jewel Inside A Dream«, gespielt von Jan Hammer und Al DiMeola auf dem Album »Electric Rendezvous« im Jahre 1981.

Two incarnations of an analog dream


At winter Namm 2016 Tom Oberheim and Dave Smith rather surprisingly released the OB-6, a six voice polyphonic analog synthesizer with a 4 octave key bed. Some immediately requested for a desktop module, and yesterday it “suddenly” appeared.

A couple of weeks ago I was allowed to play the OB-6 at the local trumpet store (last year I played the Sub 37) and I was quite impressed. During the last couple of years, after many years working with digital synths stuffed with plenty of parameters, I learned that a good piece of analogue craftsmanship with a limited set of features can overrule the digital ones at least when it comes to traditional subtractive sounds. I hope I can play the Minimoog Model D as soon it is available for resellers.